The translation of kiai varies depending on the source, but a good translation is the harmonization of internal energy or spirit union, which comes from the aikido interpretation. This energy is thought to be concentrated at the hara or tanden (1-2 inches below the navel) and a kiai is the collection of this energy, which is then focused through the body into a technique, a noise or a posture. The kiai is further said to enable a practitioner to eliminate unrelated energies at that moment to concentrate pure ki into the technique. If one looks at a kiai as the harmonizing or concentrating of energy for a single purpose then the kiai need not be vocalized at all. Rather the kiai, could be a silent exhaling focus or further it could simply be a moment at which there exists absolute zanshin, where the mind and body focus on a single task, regardless of kokyu ho.